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Indian Poisonous Snakes Pdf [UPD] Download

Snakes belonging to the family Colubridae, such as buiúna or black snake (Boiruna sertaneja), papa-pinto or indigo snake (Drymarchon corais), cobra-espada or parrot snake (Leptophis sp., Philodryas sp.), cobra-cipó or rain frog snake (Leptophis sp., Philodryas sp.), caninana or tiger rat snake (Spilotes pullatus), and cobra-d'água or water snake (Helicops sp.), were also cited. Interviewees were hesitant to say if these snakes were poisonous or not. According to Cardoso et al. [1], although they are not considered venomous snakes, in some cases their opisthoglyph dentition (enlarged fangs on the rear of the maxilla) allow them to inoculate some amount of toxin and this eventually cause a notorious local inflammation. These authors emphasize that the genera Boiruna and Philodryas may cause accidents with local pattern similar to that caused by Bothrops and Lachesis, that is, with proteolytic (acute inflammatory), coagulant and hemorrhagic actions.

indian poisonous snakes pdf download


Boiruna sertaneja and D. corais are examples of taxa about which there are divergent opinions regarding the alleged presence of venom. Of the respondents, 15 commented that these snakes are 'poisonous' only during the time of the year they reproduce, corresponding to June to August. It is worth mentioning that D. corais, due to its aglyphous teeth, cannot be considered as venomous under any circumstances [22].

Of the 22 interviewees that mentioned coral snakes, only two reported differences between the false coral snake (Oxyrhopus sp.) and the true coral snake (Micrurus sp.). However, both these snakes were always grouped together with the viperid snakes as being very dangerous and poisonous.

According to the interviewees, snakes are more poisonous from June to August because this time of the year they are mating and taking care of their offspring. It is believed that snakes become more agitated, aggressive and dangerous, increasing the potency of the venom and thus making them much more lethal:

According to 14 interviewees, all venomous snakes (which usually inhabit the ground) that are found on branches have the so-called snakestone inside their stomach. This material of organic origin is quite powerful to treat snake bites. However, it seems that such a treatment is very difficult to do because, according to interviewees, a poisonous snake that lives on the ground is rarely seen sleeping on a branch. There are two ways to use this snakestone: to tie it on the wound, since it is believed that it will draw the poison out of the body; or scraping off a bit and taking it as a tea. It was said that this snakestone appears to already come with a hole in its center, which indicates the exact amount to be scraped off and be added into the water to prepare the tea:


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